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Appendix 1: members of the commission


Professor Laura McAllister (Co-chair)

Professor Laura McAllister is a Professor of Public Policy and the Governance of Wales at Cardiff University's Wales Governance Centre. She is an expert on constitutional politics, specifically devolution and Welsh politics and elections.

Laura was chair of the Expert Panel on Assembly Electoral Reform in 2017. Alongside this, Laura is currently Vice President of UEFA and a member of its Executive Committee.

The Rt. Revd. and Rt. Hon. Dr Rowan Williams (Co-chair)

Dr Rowan Williams was the Bishop of Monmouth (1992-2002) and Archbishop of Wales (1999-2002), before becoming Archbishop of Canterbury between 2003 and 2012.

He was Chancellor of the University of South Wales 2013-2023, and Chair of Christian Aid 2013-2021. He has published widely on religion and social affairs.

Dr Anwen Elias

Dr. Anwen Elias is a Reader in Politics at the Department of International Politics, Aberystwyth University. Educated at Ysgol Dyffryn Teifi, Llandysul, she is a graduate of Cambridge University and the European University Institute, Florence, where she completed a PhD in Political and Social Science. Her research interests include comparative territorial and constitutional politics, political parties and deliberative democracy.

She is Co-Director of the Centre for Welsh Politics and Society and the Wales Institute of Social and Economic Research and Data.

She has been a Visiting Fellow at the Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Catalonia and the Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Galicia.

Miguela Gonzalez

Miguela Gonzalez is a diversity and inclusion practitioner and a former journalist. She is currently the Head of Diversity and Inclusion at Abcam, a global life sciences firm, where she is working to build an open, inclusive culture. Prior to this, she worked in the media for 15 years, mostly as a journalist with the BBC, but also in data analysis, project management and subject matter expertise roles.

As a Diversity and Inclusion Lead with the BBC's Workforce D&I team, she designed, project managed and implemented the extensive consultation that led to the broadcaster's current 3-year Diversity and Inclusion strategy.

Miguela has worked with the Welsh Government on the implementation of the Culture Connect Cymru project and has also been a visiting lecturer at Cardiff University's School of Journalism, Media and Culture. She is also on the board of trustees for Shelter Cymru and National Theatre Wales.

She brings to the Commission insights gained from wide-ranging experiences in key roles across a number of committees, teams and projects, including innovation funds, school governing bodies, art installations and music festivals.

Professor Sir Michael Marmot

Sir Michael Marmot has been Professor of Epidemiology at University College London since 1985, and is Director of the UCL Institute of Health Equity. He is the author of The Health Gap: the challenge of an unequal world (Bloomsbury: 2015), and Status Syndrome (Bloomsbury: 2004).

Professor Marmot is the Advisor to the WHO Director-General, on social determinants of health, in the new WHO Division of Healthier Populations; Distinguished Visiting Professor at Chinese University of Hong Kong (2019-), and co-Director of the of the CUHK Institute of Health Equity. He is the recipient of the WHO Global Hero Award; the Harvard Lown Professorship (2014-2017); the Prince Mahidol Award for Public Health (2015), and 19 honorary doctorates.

Marmot has led research groups on health inequalities for nearly 50 years. He chaired the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health, several WHO Regional Commissions, and reviews on tackling health inequality for governments in the UK.

He served as President of the British Medical Association (BMA) in 2010-2011, and as President of the World Medical Association in 2015. He is President of the British Lung Foundation. He is a Fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences and Honorary Fellow of the American College of Epidemiology and of the Faculty of Public Health; an Honorary Fellow of the British Academy; and of the Royal Colleges of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Psychiatry, Paediatrics and Child Health, and General Practitioners. He is an elected member of the US National Academy of Medicine and of the Brazilian Academy of Medicine.

He was a member of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution for six years and in 2000 he was knighted by Her Majesty the Queen, for services to epidemiology and the understanding of health inequalities.

Philip Rycroft

Philip Rycroft was a civil servant for 30 years. He worked at a senior level for the devolved government in Scotland before moving to the Cabinet Office in London where he led civil service work for the UK government on the constitution and devolution. His last posting was as Permanent Secretary at the Department for Exiting the EU.

He is now a non-executive director, a consultant and an academic at Edinburgh University and the Bennett Institute for Public Policy at Cambridge University.

Lauren McEvatt

Lauren McEvatt is a Conservative former UK government Special Adviser to the Wales Office from the Coalition Administration, where she worked under David Jones MP the then Secretary of State for Wales. Her term of service covered the drafting and submission of the UK Government's contribution to the Silk Commission, as well as the drafting and initial stages of the Wales Act 2014.

She has subsequently worked for several governments across East Africa and the Caribbean, including the government of a British Overseas Territory, where her background in devolution has proved most useful time and again, as she supported negotiations on British Overseas Territory constitutional reform, and on trade and investment across devolved and national government offices in an East African nation.

She was born in England to Irish and American parents, and was raised in Hong Kong. She currently works in international government affairs covering public and private sector engagement with multilateral institutions and development organisations.

She is studying remotely for an MA in Global Diplomacy at SOAS, where her proposed thesis topic will be on sub-nation state/ devolved administration representation at multilateral institutions.

Albert Owen

Albert Owen is a former Member of the UK Parliament, elected to represent his home constituency of Ynys Môn for 5 parliamentary terms. During his time as a Member of Parliament, he was an advocate for the constituency and Wales on a range of political, industrial, social and environmental issues.

He has diverse experience on Welsh affairs, energy, international development and procedures through membership of select committees, All-Party Parliamentary Groups and serving on the Speakers' Panel of Chairs. As a Member of the Speakers' Panel of Chairs, he was an early supporter of pre-legislative scrutiny of draft Bills to include interest groups, organisations and the public in shaping government legislation.

During his time as Member of the House of Commons Welsh Affairs Committee, he had a special interest in devolution, transport and energy matters.

His interests include Welsh and Maritime history, holding the roles of patron of the local Maritime Museum and Vice President of the RNLI. He enjoys coastal walking, travel, reading, cooking, and watching sport.

Shavanah Taj

Shavanah Taj is Wales TUC's first BME General Secretary. She joined Wales TUC in February 2019 from the Public and Commercial Services Union (PCS), where she was the Welsh Secretary from 2013. Shavanah is a graduate of the TUC Organising Academy 2002.

Prior to joining PCS as a full-time officer in 2002, Shavanah worked in retail, call centres and the third sector.

Shavanah is a passionate campaigner and activist for equity and social justice. She is a board member for a number of charities, including the Bevan Foundation and the People's Health Trust and Chair for Women Connect First. Shavanah is a visible advocate for workers' rights, often appearing on TV, Press, giving advice and evidence to Welsh Ministers and Committees, contributing speeches at round table debates and protest marches. Key areas of expertise include worker exploitation, low pay, anti-racism, human rights, women's rights and climate justice.

Kirsty Williams

Kirsty Williams served for 22 years in the Senedd, prior to which she was a member of the National Assembly Advisory Group appointed by the then Secretary of State for Wales to advise on the establishment of the newly devolved institution. In 2008 she was elected leader of the Welsh Liberal Democrats, the first woman to lead one of the four main political parties in Wales.

Between 2016-2021 she was Minister for Education, leading a national mission of education reform. She retired from front line politics in May 2021 and now chairs the advisory board of the International Learning Exchange Programme, Wales' replacement for Erasmus+.

She lives on the family farm in the heart of the Brecon Beacons and is an enthusiastic volunteer at Pontfaen Young Farmers Club.

Leanne Wood

Leanne Wood has more than 25 years' experience as a political activist. She has held many roles in political life including local councillor, MS for the Rhondda and leader of Plaid Cymru. She was the first woman to represent the Rhondda and the first woman to lead Plaid Cymru. She is the Co-executive director of Community Energy Wales and the ambassador for Ramblers Cymru.

Leanne has championed many and various social and economic issues and is determined to work to ensure that whatever Wales' constitutional future looks like, those who are struggling and those who are marginalised have a chance to see real improvements in their lives.

Appendix 2: Broad objectives of the Independent Commission on the Constitutional Future of Wales


The commission has 2 broad objectives:

  • To consider and develop options for fundamental reform of the constitutional structures of the United Kingdom, in which Wales remains an integral part
  • To consider and develop all progressive principal options to strengthen Welsh democracy and deliver improvements for the people of Wales.

Working practices

The commission will be co-chaired by Professor Laura McAllister and Dr Rowan Williams. Including the Co-chairs, the commission will comprise 11 members drawn from a broad range of political opinion and sections of Welsh society. The commission will be supported in its work by a Secretariat and a panel of experts.

In carrying out its work the commission should develop a programme of inclusive engagement with civic society and the Welsh public to stimulate a national conversation; and commission research, analysis and expert opinion through a panel of experts established for this purpose.

Appendix 3: Commission expenditure (1 August 2021 - 31 October 2023)

Secretariat Staff costs£815,850
Commissioners' costs£102,288
Expert Panel costs£38,291
Research, engagement and events£550,948

Appendix 4: Meetings of the commission


25 November 2021 - Business meeting
9 December 2021 - Constitutional context workshop


12 January 2022 - Engagement workshop
19 January 2022 - Evidence and business meeting

16 February 2022 - Evidence meeting

7 March 2022 - Engagement workshop
16 March 2022 - Evidence meeting

26 April 2022 - Business meeting
27 April 2022 - Evidence meeting

5 May 2022 - In person meeting
24 May 2022 - Evidence meeting
25 May 2022 - Fiscal context workshop

9 June 2022 - Business meeting
22 June 2022 - Evidence meeting
28 June 2022 - Business meeting

15 July 2022 - Evidence meeting

7 September 2022 - Business meeting 
20 September 2022 - Evidence meeting
27 September 2022 - Evidence meeting

6 October 2022 - In person meeting
12 October 2022 - Evidence meeting
18 October 2022 - Research and polling workshop
18 October 2022 - Evidence meeting
20 October 2022 - Evidence meeting

8 November 2022 - Business meeting

6 December 2022 - Business meeting
7 December 2022 - Evidence meeting


9 January 2023 - Business meeting
9 January 2023 - Evidence meeting

7 February 2023 - Business meeting
14 February 2023 - Constitutional workshop

7 March 2023 - Business meeting
21 March 2023 - Fiscal workshop

18 April 2023 - Business meeting
25 April 2023 - Evidence meeting

16 May 2023 - Business meeting
25 May 2023 - Evidence meeting

6 June 2023 - Business meeting
22 June 2023 - Deliberative democracy workshop

6 July 2023 - Business meeting
20 July 2023 - Evidence meeting

7 September 2023 - Evidence meeting
12 September 2023 - Business meeting
28 September 2023 - Evidence meeting

19 October 2023 - Business meeting
26 October 2023 - Business meeting

7 November 2023 - Business meeting
23 November 2023 - Business meeting

14 December 2023 - Business meeting

Appendix 5: participants in evidence sessions and workshops

Participants in evidence sessions (including sub-groups)

  • Adam Price MS, Leader, Plaid Cymru
  • Alun Michael, Police and Crime Commissioner for South Wales
  • Andy Burnham, Mayor of Greater Manchester Combined Authority
  • Andy Dunbobbin, Police and Crime Commissioner for North Wales
  • Angus Robertson, Cabinet Secretary for the Constitution, External Affairs and Culture, Scottish Government
  • Anthony Slaughter, Leader, Wales Green Party
  • Black Lives Matter Cymru
  • CBI Wales
  • Chambers Wales
  • Chris Jennings, Executive Director of HM Prison and Probation Service Wales
  • Cllr Huw Thomas, Leader, Cardiff Council
  • Cllr Llinos Medi, Welsh Local Government Association Plaid Group Leader, and Leader of Isle of Anglesey County Council
  • Cllr Mark Pritchard, Welsh Local Government Association Independent Group Leader, and Leader of Wrexham Borough Council
  • Dafydd Iwan, Welsh language campaigner, musician, and former President of Plaid Cymru
  • Dafydd Llywelyn, Police and Crime Commissioner for Dyfed Powys
  • Darren Millar MS, Shadow Minister for Constitution and North Wales, Welsh Conservatives
  • David Hughes, Public Law Wales
  • David McNeill, Director of Public Affairs and Campaigns, Law Society
  • Democracy Box
  • Dr Robert Jones, Cardiff University
  • Dr Christoph Niessen, Leiden University
  • Dr Lisa Claire Whitten, Queen's University Belfast
  • Dr Matt Wall, Swansea University
  • Dr Oliver Escobar, University of Edinburgh
  • Dr Victoria Winkler, Director, Bevan Foundation
  • Dyfed Alsop, Chief Executive, Welsh Revenue Authority
  • Dylan Moore Institute of Welsh Affairs
  • Elin Jones MS, Llywydd, Senedd Cymru
  • Enrique Uribe Jongbloed, Cardiff University
  • Ethnic Minorities and Youth Support Team Wales
  • Federation of Small Businesses, Wales
  • Future of Devolution and Work Commission, Wales TUC
  • Gethin Jones, PCS (Prisons)
  • Gwenith Price, Acting Welsh Language Commissioner
  • Gwern Gwynfil, Chief Executive, Yes Cymru
  • Hannah Blythyn MS, Deputy Minister for Social Partnership (and supporting officials)
  • Heléna Herklots, Older People’s Commissioner for Wales
  • Independence Commission, Plaid Cymru
  • Institute of Directors, Wales
  • Jane Dodds MS, Leader, Welsh Liberal Democrats
  • Jane Hutt MS, Minister for Social Justice (and supporting officials)
  • Jeff Cuthbert, Police and Crime Commission for Gwent and Chair of Policing in Wales
  • Joe Allen, Wales TUC
  • Jonathan Davies, Head of Wales, Law Society
  • Joshua Hurst, Wales Public Affairs and Policy Adviser, Law Society
  • Lee Waters MS, Deputy Minister for Climate Change (and supporting officials)
  • Liz Withers, Head of Welsh Affairs, Solicitors’ Regulation Authority
  • Lord Peter Hain, member of the Constitution Reform Group, and former Secretary of State for Wales
  • Lord Neuberger
  • Lord Thomas of Cwmgiedd
  • Mabli Siriol Jones, Chair, Cymdeithas yr Iaith
  • Mark Barry, Professor of Practice in Connectivity, Cardiff University
  • Mark Davies, Chair, Law Society National Board for Wales
  • Mel Doel, Co-chair of the Welsh Government's Broadcasting Expert Panel
  • Mick Antoniw MS, Counsel General for Wales
  • Neath Port Talbot Council for Voluntary Service
  • Neil O’Brien MP, Minister for Levelling Up, the Union and Constitution, UK government
  • Nicky Ryan, Police Federation of England and Wales
  • Nisreen Mansour, Wales TUC
  • Professor David Phinnemore, Queen's University Belfast
  • Professor Elin Haf Gruffydd Jones, Co-chair of the Welsh Government's Broadcasting Expert Panel
  • Professor Jean Jenkins, Chair of the Commission on the Future of Devolution and Work in Wales
  • Professor Jim Gallagher
  • Professor John Denham
  • Professor Mererid Hopwood, Chair of Welsh and Celtic Studies, Aberystwyth University
  • Rebecca Evans MS, Minister for Local Government and Finance
  • Rhodri Williams KC
  • Rt Hon David TC Davies MP, Secretary of State for Wales
  • Rt Hon Gordon Brown
  • Rt Hon Lord Paul Murphy
  • Rt Hon Mark Drakeford MS, First Minister of Wales
  • Rt Hon Michael Gove MP, Secretary of State for Levelling Up, Housing and Communities and Minister for Intergovernmental Relations
  • Rt Hon Professor Carwyn Jones)
  • Rt Hon Simon Hart MP, Secretary of State for Wales
  • Sally Holland, Children’s Commissioner for Wales
  • Sarah Rigby, Prison Officers Association
  • Sir David Lidington
  • Sir Paul Silk, member of the Constitution Reform Group, and former Chair of the UK government’s Commission on Devolution in Wales
  • Sophie Howe, Future Generations Commissioner for Wales
  • Su McConnel, Vice Chair, NAPO Cymru
  • The Lord Dunlop
  • Transport for Wales
  • Urdd Gobaith Cymru
  • Voices From Care Cymru
  • Wales Council for Voluntary Action
  • Wales Race Forum
  • Wales Young Farmers Club
  • Welsh Local Government Association, Political Leaders and Officers
  • Welsh Government officials
  • Young Carers Academy
  • Yes Cymru

Participants in expert workshops

  • Adam McDonnell, You Gov
  • Akash Paun, Institute for Government, and Expert Panel
  • Alan Renwick, University College London
  • Auriol Miller, Director of Institute of Welsh Affairs, and Expert Panel
  • Dr Christoph Niessen, Leiden University
  • Cian Sion, Wales Governance Centre
  • David Melding CBE
  • David Phillips, Institute of Fiscal Studies
  • Dr Matt Wall, Swansea University
  • Ed Poole, Wales Governance Centre
  • Gareth Williams, Expert Panel
  • Guto Ifan, Wales Governance Centre
  • Hugh Rawlings, Expert Panel
  • Jac Larner, Wales Governance Centre
  • Jane Wallace, Head of Public Affairs, Which
  • Jerry Latter, YouGov
  • Jess Blair, ERS Cymru, and Expert Panel
  • Jill Rutter, National Conversation on Immigration
  • Katie Alpin, Head of Strategic Insight, Which
  • Mairi Spowage, Director, Fraser of Allender Institute, University of Strathclyde, and Expert Panel
  • Nicholas Duffin, Fellow, The Consultation Institute
  • Noreen Blanluet, Co-production Network
  • Professor Aileen McHarg, Durham University
  • Prof Diana Stirbu, London Metropolitan University, and Expert Panel
  • Professor Erin F. Delaney, Northwestern University, Chicago and Distinguished Visiting Professor at UCL Faculty of Laws
  • Professor John Doyle, Dublin City University
  • Professor Meg Russell, The Constitution Unit, University College London
  • Professor Oliver Escobar, University of Edinburgh
  • Professor Rick Rawlings, University College London
  • Richard Wyn Jones, Wales Governance Centre
  • Sir Paul Silk, Constitutional Reform Group
  • Stephen Noon, Edinburgh University
  • Sophie Beesley, Research Data Analyst, Which
  • Welsh Government officials with expertise in specialist areas

Appendix 6: written evidence received from organisations

  • Adult Learning Wales (submitted a response summarising discussions in its regional forums, and 42 individual responses from learners)
  • Anti*Capitalist Resistance, supported by Socialist Resistance and
  • Auditor General for Wales
  • Bevan Foundation
  • Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales
  • Centre for Welsh Politics and Society, Aberystwyth University
  • Children's Commissioner for Wales
  • Climate Cymru
  • Community Energy Wales
  • Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg
  • Co-operatives and Mutuals Wales
  • Cyngor Cyfathrebu Cenedlaethol
  • Cytun
  • Electoral Reform Society
  • Federation of Small Businesses
  • Gwlad -Plaid Annibyniaeth Cymru
  • Institute for Welsh Affairs
  • Institute of Directors
  • Labour for an Independent Wales
  • Left Unity Wales
  • Make UK
  • Melin Drafod
  • Monmouth branch of Plaid Cymru
  • National Pensioners Convention
  • Neath Port Talbot Council for Voluntary Service
  • Network Rail
  • North & Mid Wales Association of Local Councils
  • Older People's Commissioner for Wales
  • Plaid Cymru
  • Police and Crime Commissioners (PCC) (Jeff Cuthbert, PCC for Gwent, Dafydd Llywelyn, PCC for Dyfed Powys, Andy Dunbobbin, PCC for North Wales, Alun Michael, PCC for South Wales)
  • Presbyterian Church of Wales
  • RMT
  • Royal College of Psychiatrists Wales
  • Solicitors Regulation Authority
  • The Crown Estate
  • The Law Society
  • The Learned Society for Wales
  • The Sovereign Party
  • Unison
  • Wales Council for Voluntary Action
  • Wales Green Party
  • Welsh Language Commissioner
  • Welsh Liberal Democrats
  • Women’s Equality Network Wales
  • Welsh Government, (in response to commission requests)
  • UK government(in response to commission requests)
  • Welsh Justice Union Group

Appendix 7: citizens' voices

The following engagement events are in addition to our engagement through evidence sessions, sub-groups and other meetings. The events are also in addition to the Commissions engagement through our online platforms. This list describes how we went out into communities across Wales and beyond to meet people in their localities.

Citizens' panel sessions

Number of focus group sessions: 26


  • Cardiff
  • Ceredigion
  • Gwynedd
  • Monmouthshire
  • Pembrokeshire
  • Powys
  • Rhondda Cynon Taff
  • Wrexham

Roadshow of engagement events in public locations

Number of engagement events in public locations: 24


  • Sioe Môn, Isle of Anglesey
  • Ebbw Vale, Blaenau Gwent
  • Bridgend, Bridgend
  • Blackwood, Caerphilly
  • Butetown, Cardiff
  • Gabalfa, Cardiff
  • Carmarthen, Carmarthenshire
  • Aberystwyth, Ceredigion
  • Colwyn Bay, Conwy
  • Mold Market, Denbighshire
  • Prestatyn, Flintshire
  • Bangor, Gwynedd
  • Merthyr, Merthyr Tydfil
  • Abergavenny Food Festival, Monmouthshire
  • Neath, Neath Port Talbot
  • Newport, Newport
  • Haverfordwest, Pembrokeshire
  • Newtown, Powys
  • Royal Welsh Agricultural Show, Builth Wells, Powys
  • Aberdare, Rhondda Cynon Taff
  • Swansea, Swansea
  • Cwmbran, Torfaen
  • Barry, Vale of Glamorgan
  • Wrexham, Wrexham

Commission engagement events

Number of publicly accessible commission engagement events: 8


  • Royal Welsh Agricultural Show
  • National Eisteddfod (2022 and 2023)
  • Urdd Eisteddfod
  • Free live online Q&As
  • Hay Festival
  • Tregroes community

Attendance at conferences

Number of conferences attended: 8

List of conference organisers:

  • Institute for Government roundtable
  • Conservatives spring conference
  • Labour party spring conference
  • Lib Dems spring conference
  • Plaid Cymru spring conference
  • Women’s Institute annual conference 2023
  • Wales Assembly of Women

Engagement with groups of organisations (in addition to those listed in Appendix 6)

Number of organisations: 11

List of organisations:

  • Conwy Youth Forum
  • Democracy Box
  • House of Commons
  • House of Lords
  • Pembrokeshire Youth Assembly
  • Senedd Cymru
  • The Talking Shop
  • Urdd Youth Theatre
  • Welsh Youth Parliament
  • All local authorities through joint engagement with WLGA
  • YFC Wales

Funded engagement

  • Community Engagement Fund recipients
  • All Wales Forum of Parents and Carers of People with Learning Disabilities (AWF) (Pan Wales)
  • ArtsFactory and Cwm Taf People’s First (Rhondda Cynon Taf, Merthyr Tydfil and Blaenau Gwent)
  • Autistic Minds (Caerphilly and South Wales)
  • Community Impact Initiative CIC (Neath Port Talbot and South Wales)
  • National Pensioners Convention Wales, Cymru, Cymru Older People’s Alliance (COPA) and Active Wales, supported by Age Cymru (Pan Wales)
  • North Wales Africa Society (North Wales)
  • Race Council Cymru, Chinese in Wales Association and African Community Council (Swansea and Neath Port Talbot)
  • Swansea MAD (Swansea and Neath Port Talbot)
  • Tai Pawb and Home4U (Cardiff)
  • Voices from Care Cymru (Pan Wales)
  • Letters Grow, in collaboration with North Wales Recovery Communities (North Wales)

Appendix 8: members of the expert panel

  • Gareth Williams (Chair) – Former Special Adviser to the Welsh Government on European Transition
  • Prof Diana Stirbu – Professor of Policy and Governance at London Met University
  • Jess Blair – Director of the Electoral Reform Society Cymru
  • Prof Emyr Lewis – Head of Department of Law and Criminology at Aberystwyth University
  • Auriol Miller – Director of the Institute of Welsh Affairs
  • Akash Paun – Head of Institute for Government’s devolution programme
  • Dr Hugh Rawlings – Former Director of Constitutional affairs at the Welsh Government
  • Prof Mairi Spowage – Professor of Practice and Director of the Fraser of Allander Institute

Appendix 9: glossary

Independent / independence

A state which is recognised by other members of the international community as politically independent and is therefore eligible to join international organisations such as the United Nations or the European Union as a full member.


A state or the political authority within it which has full autonomy to determine its own legislation and policies, subject only to the membership of international or supranational organisations which it (at least in theory) could decide to withdraw from (as the UK has done from the European Union). In practice of course, sovereignty is constrained by the decisions and attitudes of other states and international actors, reflected in the development of the global economy, environmental challenges, and the broader geopolitical situation.

Federal / federation

Arrangements within a sovereign state which distribute legal and political powers between a federal government and a number of component ‘states’ or regions and in which the distribution of powers is set down in a constitution or fundamental law which can only be amended if special constitutional thresholds are met. Usually, but not invariably, all the component ‘states’ have the same powers, and are represented in the institutional governance structures at the federal level. Examples of federal states are the USA, Germany, Canada, Australia, etc.

Home rule / 'Devo Max’

A constitutional settlement in which all ‘internal’ policies are devolved, with only foreign affairs, defence, security and macro-economic policy retained at the ‘federal’ level.

Asymmetric devolution

Constitutional arrangements within a sovereign state in which certain regions or component nations have specific political and legislative institutions which are not common to other parts of the state. Spain and the UK are the two most obvious examples of this sort of arrangement. In the UK, because of the doctrine of Parliamentary sovereignty, devolution is also in one sense provisional, since nothing could prevent a Parliamentary majority from fundamental re-writing of the devolution statutes.

Sewel convention

The convention, now codified in s.107(6) of the Government of Wales Act 2006, that Westminster should not normally legislate on matters which are within devolved competence or which alter the scope of devolved competence without the consent of the Senedd. This convention - which the Supreme Court has said is not legally enforceable - has been undermined by Parliament ignoring the refusal of consent on several occasions since 2018 even where it is not disputed that Sewel is engaged, having previously been respected by Westminster governments.

Appendix 10: bibliography

Articles, reports and publications

Henderson, A., Wyn Jones, R., (2023), Public attitudes towards the constitutional future of the UK: Analysis from the 2023 State of the Union Survey, Wales Governance Centre and University of Edinburgh

Henderson, A., Jones, R.W. (2023) The Ambivalent Union: Findings from the State of the Union Survey, Institute for Public Policy, London

Blunt, A. (2023) Gathering public views on potential options for Wales’s constitutional future: Stage 1 Findings, Summary and Project Progress, Beaufort Research

Blunt, A. (2023) Gathering public views on potential options for Wales’s constitutional future: Quantitative survey findings summary, Beaufort Research

Blunt, A. (2023) Gathering public views on potential options for Wales’s constitutional future: Qualitative online stage engagement feedback, Beaufort Research 

Blunt, A. (2023) Concluding deliberative qualitative research findings: views on the Commission’s three preferred options for Wales, Beaufort Research

Valgardsson, V., Ryan, M., Jennings, W., Downe, J., Notman, G. (2023) Defining, Measuring, and Monitoring Democratic Health in Wales, Wales Centre for Public Policy

Moore, D. (2023), Building Bridges: Wales’ Democracy – now, and for our future, Institute of Welsh Affairs

Nabatchi, T. & Leighninger, M. (2015). Public participation for 21st century democracy. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons

OECD (2020), Innovative Citizen Participation and New Democratic Institutions: Catching the Deliberative Wave, OECD Publishing, Paris

Clemence, M., Skinner, G., (2023) The economy and inflation remain the country’s biggest concerns, closely followed by the NHS, Ipsos Issues Index October 2023

Elstub, Stephen and Escobar, O. (2019) ‘Defining and typologising democratic innovations’, in S. Elstub and O. Escobar (eds) Handbook of Democratic Innovation and Governance. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar

Cynnal Cymru – Sustain Wales (n.d.) Blaenau Gwent Climate Assembly [accessed November 2023]

Moore, D., Seargeant, P., Smith, D., (2022) Citizens’ Voices, People’s News: Making the Media Work for Wales, institute of Welsh Affairs, Cardiff

Willams, E., St. Denny, E., Bristow, D. (2017) Participatory Budgeting: an evidence review, Public Policy Institute for Wales

Elias, A. & Wood, J. (2023) How to Have a National Conversation on Wales’s Constitutional Future: Discussion paper presented to the Independent Commission on the Constitutional Future of Wales Centre for Welsh Politics and Society, Aberystwyth University

Stirbu, D. (2021) Power, Influence and Impact of Senedd Committees: Developing a framework for measuring committees’ effectiveness, London Metropolitan University

Lilly, A., White, H., Shepley, P., Sargeant, J., Osei, K., Olajugba, S., (2021)  Parliamentary Monitor 2021, Institute for Government

Lilly, A. (15 May 2023) The Slow Death of Parliamentary Scrutiny, The House, [accessed November 2023]

Bunn, D. (2022) International Tax Competitiveness Index 2022, Centre for Global Tax Policy, Tax Foundation, Washington DC

Clarke, D., (12 September 2023) Number of public sector employees in the civil service UK 1999-2023,, [accessed November 2023]

Hayward, K., McEwan, N. (2023) Wales and its Borders: The implications of independence for managing Wales’ land and sea borders, report commissioned by Plaid Cymru and shared with the commission

Ifan, G. Siôn, C and Wincott, D. (2023) Devolution, Independence and Wales’ Fiscal Deficit, National Institute Economic Review, Cambridge University Press

Doyle, J. (2023) The “Fiscal Deficit” in Wales: why it does not represent an accurate picture of the opening public finances of an Independent Wales, Dublin City University

Komorowski, M., Moore, D. (2022) Broadcasting Regulation in Wales: Part 1, institute of Welsh Affairs, Cardiff

Komorowski, M., Moore, D., Uribe-Jongbloed, E., (2023) Broadcasting Regulation in Wales: Part 2 and 3, Institute of Welsh Affairs, Cardiff

Jenkins, J. (due to be published 2023) Future of Devolution and Work Commission, TUC Commission on Devolution and Work

Cooke, K., Iredale, R., Williams. R., Wooding, N. (2019) Measuring the Mountain: What Really Matters in Social Care to Individuals in Wales. University of South Wales, Pontypridd

Hayward, W., (21 October 2023) The Powers People Think Westminster Should Give to Wales, Wales Online, [accessed November 2023]

McHarg, A. (2023) The contested boundaries of devolved legislative competence: Securing better devolution settlements, Bennett Institute for Public Policy, Cambridge, and Institute for Government, London

Laurentjoye, T. (2023), Currency options for an independent Wales, Report commissioned by Plaid Cymru Senedd Group

Government and Parliament publications

Senedd Cymru (2019) Our First Citizens Assembly Senedd Now [accessed November 2023]

Newport City Council, (n.d.) Participatory budgeting 2022/23 programme [accessed November 2023]

Civil Service Local (n.d.) Cymru Wales, Civil Service Local Blog [accessed November 2023]

Auditor General for Scotland (2022) Social security: Progress on implementing the devolved benefits, Audit Scotland, Edinburgh

House of Commons Levelling Up, Housing and Communities Committee (2023) Funding for Levelling Up: Sixth Report of Session 2022-23, House of Commons Levelling Up, Housing and Communities Committee Report

House of Lords, Common Frameworks Scrutiny Committee (2022) Common frameworks: an unfulfilled opportunity? 1st Report of Session 2022–23

Welsh Government, (2023) Inter-Institutional relations agreement between the Senedd and the Welsh Government: report on intergovernmental relations covering the period 2021 to 2023

Transport for Wales (2023) Business Plan 2022/23

Doel, M., Jones, E.H.G. (co-chairs) (2023) A new future for broadcasting and communications in Wales: Report of the Expert Panel on a Shadow Broadcasting and Communications Authority for Wales, Welsh Government

Culture, Welsh Language and Communications Committee (2021) Exploring the devolution of broadcasting: How can Wales get the media it needs? Culture, Welsh Language and Communications Committee report, Senedd Cymru

House of Commons Welsh Affairs Committee (2023) Broadcasting in Wales, Welsh Affairs Committee report, Fifth Report of Session 2022–23

Lord Dunlop, (2019) Review of UK Government Union Capacity, the Dunlop Review

Letter from Rt Hon Michael Gove MP, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, to Lord Dunlop in response to the findings of the Dunlop Review, 24 March 2021

Department for Levelling Up, Housing and Communities, (2022) Review of Inter-governmental Relations, Cabinet Office

Commissions referenced

Holtham, G. chair (2010) Fairness and accountability: a new funding settlement for Wales, The Independent Commission on Funding & Finance for Wales, House of Commons Library, London

Lord Thomas of Cwmgiedd, chair (2019), Justice in Wales for the People of Wales, The Commission on Justice in Wales, Welsh Government, Cardiff

Silk, P. chair (2012) Empowerment and Responsibility: Financial Powers to Strengthen Wales, The Silk Commission Report No. 1, The National Archives, Kew

Silk, P. chair (2014) Empowerment and Responsibility: Legislative Powers to Strengthen Wales, the Silk Commission Report No. 2, The National Archives, Kew

Lord Smith of Kelvin, Chair (2014) Report of the Smith Commission for further devolution of powers to the Scottish Parliament, The Smith Commission, The National Archives, Kew

Legislation referenced

Welsh Senedd/ National Assembly for Wales legislation

The Senedd Cymru (Members and Elections) Bill 2023 and Explanatory Memorandum

Wellbeing of Future Generations Act 2015

UK Parliament legislation

Act of the Union Draft Bill [House of Lords] 2018

Government of Wales Act 2006

Wales Act 2014

Wales Act 2017

Energy Act 2023

Broadcasting Act 1996

Communications Act 2003

Scotland Act 2016

The European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018

The European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2020

United Kingdom Internal Market Act 2020

Subsidy Control Act 2022

Fixed-Term Parliament Act 2011

Dissolution and Calling of Parliament Act 2022

Equalities Act 2010

Parliament Act 1911

Parliament Act 1949

Further reading

Articles, reports and publications

Paun, A., Henderson, D., Hourston, P. (2023) The art of the devolution deal: How England’s counties and cities can make a success of devolution, Institute for Government, London

Gomes, L (8 February 2023) Taxing Times: WRIT and the Welsh Government’s Draft Budget 2023-24, Thinking Wales – Meddwl Cymru [accessed November 2023]

George, J. (2023) The ‘Modern’ Bill of Rights Bill: Substituting ‘common sense’ with contradictory constitutionalism, The Constitution Society, London

Stansbury, A., Turner, D., Balls, E. (2023) Tackling the UK’s regional economic inequality: Binding constraints and avenues for policy intervention, Mossavar-Rahmani Center for Business & Government, Harvard Kennedy School, M-RCBG Associate Working Paper Series, No. 198

Renwick, A., Lauderdale, B., Russell, M., Cleaver, J. (2023) Public Preferences for Integrity and Accountability in Politics: Results of a Second Survey of the UK Population, The Constitution Unit, London, Third Report of the Democracy in the UK after Brexit Project

Bradbury, J., Davies, A. (2023) Regional Economic Development and the Case of Wales: Theory and Practice and Problems of Strategy and Policy, National Institute Economic Review, Cambridge University Press

Tierney, S., (23 March 2023) The Gender Recognition Reform (Scotland) Bill: Time for the United Kingdom to learn from other Federal Systems? IACL-AIDC Blog [accessed November 2023]

Newman, J., Kenny, M. (2023) Devolving English Government, Bennett Institute for Public Policy, Cambridge, and Institute for Government, London

Charlesworth, Z., Clegg, A., Rowlands, J. (2023) A Common Approach to Welsh Benefits; a Feasibility Study, The Bevan Foundation, Merthyr Tydfil

Murphy, Y. (2023) The Ballot Box: Beyond The Democracy Box© Report and Proof of Concept 2020 to 2023, Omidaze Productions

Rycroft, P., Not by Design: the erratic evolution of the British constitution since 1997, Bennett Institute for Public Policy, Cambridge, and Institute for Government, London

Taylor-Collins, E., Bristow, D. (2020) Administering social security in Wales: Evidence on potential reforms, Wales Centre for Public Policy

Stirling, T., Winckler, V., Blake, Jo. (2018) Universal Credit: Implications for devolved policies and services, The Bevan Foundation, Merthyr Tydfil

The Bevan Foundation, (2016) Making Welfare Work for Wales: should benefits for working age people be devolved? With support of the Joseph Rowntree Foundation

Melding, D. (2013) The Reformed Union: The UK as a Federation, Institute of Welsh Affairs, Cardiff

Jones, G. C. (2 August 2023) The unfinished business of UK constitutional reform, LSE Blog [accessed November 2023]

Evans, A., (2023) From an experiment to a new normal: Indirect Rule in Northern Ireland, Wales Governance Centre, Cardiff University

Jones, R., Jones, R.W., (2019) Justice at the Jagged Edge in Wales, Wales Governance Centre, Cardiff University

Government and Parliament publications

Tudor, S., Building a Stronger Union (2023), House of Lords Library, London

Constitution, Europe, External Affairs and Culture Committee, (2023) How devolution is changing post EU, Scottish Government, Edinburgh

Deputy Minister for Climate Change, Lee Waters AS/AM (20 April 2023) Speech to Rail Cymru 23 Conference at Holland House Hotel Cardiff, [text taken from Lee Waters personal blog Amanwy, accessed November 2023]

Welsh Affairs Committee (2021) Railway Infrastructure in Wales, Welsh Affairs Committee report, House of Commons


Johnson, R. (ed.), Yuan Yi Zhu, (Ed.) (2023) Sceptical Perspectives on the Changing Constitution of the United Kingdom, Hart Publishing, London

Jones, R., Jones, R.W., (2022) The Welsh Criminal Justice System: On the Jagged Edge, University of Wales Press, Cardiff