This guide is aimed at small and medium sized businesses operating from physical premises and those with only an online presence.
This guide should be read in conjunction with the Separate Collection of Waste Materials for Recycling: A Code of Practice for Wales. This guide provides supplementary advice for individual sectors and should not be read as standalone guidance.
SMEs are workplaces with up to 249 full time equivalent employees (FTEs).
It applies to workplaces across a variety of sectors such as offices, retail and hospitality. There are separate guides available for the following sectors that may also be classed as SMEs which you may find useful:
- Hospitality and food services;
- Residential settings (including care homes);
- Outdoor events (For example festivals) and
- Entertainment and leisure facilities (including campsites, chalets, lodges, hotels, caravans).
Why you need to recycle
From 6 April 2024, the new law will mean all workplaces have to present the following materials separately for collection for recycling and arrange for the waste to be collected separately from other waste.
What to recycle
- Paper and card;
- Metal, plastic, and cartons and other similar packaging (for example coffee cups);
- Food – all premises that produce 5kg or more of food waste in seven consecutive days;
- Unsold small waste electrical and electronic equipment (sWEEE) and
- Unsold textiles.
The 5kg food waste weight limit applies to any seven-day period. If you produce 5kg or more of food waste during any seven days, then it must be presented separately for collection. If you do not produce over 5kg per week this should be monitored to take account of any changes on the premises, for example an increase of staffing levels or visitors.
This law only applies to household like waste produced by workplaces, that is waste that is usually found at home and routinely collected from the kerbside.
A full list of recyclable materials that should be presented separately for recycling is available here: The Separate Collection of Waste Materials for Recycling: Code of Practice
As a waste producer, you are required to produce a waste transfer note. In most cases, however, your waste collector will produce this for you. You should check this carefully to ensure that the description of the waste being collected is accurate. None of the separated materials can be sent by your waste collector to landfill or incineration. You could consider asking your waste collector for regular evidence of the final processing destinations of your segregated materials.
The new law bans any food waste of any amount from being disposed of down the sink or drain into the sewer. It means you cannot use in-sink maceration units that chop or liquidise food waste and send it down the drain.
While it will not be illegal for you to have a macerator, de-waterer, or other similar food waste disposal technology, it will be illegal to use them to send food waste into sewers.
All occupiers of workplaces must correctly present recyclable materials separately for collection by their chosen waste collector. Whether you own, rent, or lease your premises, it still applies.
If you share a space e.g., a shopping centre, food, or market hall, you may need to check if a central recycling system that meets the requirements of the law will be provided by landlords. If so, it will be your responsibility to ensure you and your staff use the recycling systems provided correctly. If not, your recyclable waste will be your responsibility.
If you mainly have an online presence, you will still need to comply with the changes on any premises that you use.
How to better understand your waste and recycling
To identify the different types of waste you produce, you could undertake a waste audit by examining the contents of general waste bins and take note of any waste reduction or recycling efforts that are already in place to help identify further opportunities for waste prevention and recycling.
Areas within a workplace most likely to generate waste include:
- staff room/mess room - paper, food and packaging materials;
- office – paper, food and packaging materials and
- warehousing/stock rooms – packaging such as cardboard, plastic films and wrapping.
Depending on your business, there may be types of waste that you produce, for example damaged stock, which may be hazardous that require a specialised waste collection service.
Consider whether you produce different types or quantities of waste throughout the year. This will be more likely if your business is affected by weather or the seasons e.g., Christmas or other holidays or those which are linked to tourism.
Preventing waste in the first place
Reducing or preventing how much waste you produce will help to save money and reduce the size of bins you will need.
Here are a few tips to reduce your waste:
- Donate surplus or unsold stock – donate surplus food to charity or have an employee fridge for products that they can eat or take home free of charge. Donate other surplus items (for example stationery) to schools or a local ‘scrap-store’. Guidance is available on GOV.UK on how food businesses must dispose of food and former foodstuffs
- Purchase recycled, refillable or reusable products wherever possible;
- Provide water fountains for staff to use and stock kitchen facilities (if provided) with reusable cups, crockery, and utensils rather than single use disposable alternatives;
- Ask your suppliers to use returnable transit packaging that they collect from you when they next deliver and
- Consider ways of going paperless:
- Set default printing and photocopying settings to ‘double sided’,
- Email rather than print documents,
- Monitor printing and photocopying volumes, setting reduction targets for staff members, or
- Use paperless marketing methods.
There may be some costs to making these changes for some workplaces but increasing how much you recycle could reduce your waste disposal costs in the medium-to-long run. As this law applies to all workplaces, it will be factored into business and management models.
If you are already separately collecting and recycling all the materials you need to under the new law, then you may not need to do anything else. We recommend that you read The Separate Collection of Waste Materials for Recycling: Code of Practice to double check you are doing everything you need to. This includes a list of all the specific types of things that have to be recycled.
Setting up recycling across your organisation
For SMEs the biggest challenge is often finding the time to make necessary changes when new rules or regulations are introduced. The Workplace Recycling Regulations are a legal requirement and so the responsibility to be compliant will fall on the business owner. Non-compliance could result in fines being issued.
If you operate your business independently, implementing a recycling collection service and ensuring you are complying with the new law will be your responsibility.
Shopping centres or managed locations
If you are within a managed location such as a shopping centre, food or market hall then waste management services might be procured by a facilities management company. You should contact them to find out about any changes they will be making.
How to arrange a new recycling service
If you need to organise a new recycling service, it’s worth thinking about the following:
- What is the amount or type of waste you regularly produce? Does this change during the year? For example, increases over Christmas or school holidays. Your recycling collection service, including the number of bins and how often they need emptying, may need to be flexible. Is it better to pay by bin size, frequency of collection and/or by the actual weight of waste you produce? Shop around to get the best legally compliant service;
- Whether having recycling collections on certain days of the week e.g., after busy weekends, will help prevent waste and recyclables from building up;
- Maybe little and often works better for you. Most waste collectors offer different container sizes, including sacks for some waste. Once you start recycling you might be able to reduce the size of your general waste bin;
- If you don’t have much space for external containers, could you share bins with other businesses to help reduce costs and space? Just bear in mind that waste containers can’t be stored on the public highway in between collections;
- Speak to your existing waste collector about your new recycling needs. They will need to be aware of the new law and ensure the services they offer will be compliant and
- You could also get quotes from a range of collectors to get the best price and the most suitable service for you.
If requested, councils must arrange waste and recycling collection services for you. There is a charge for these services. In rural areas you may find that options for waste and recycling are more limited, and that only councils will provide a collection service to you, especially if you do not produce a lot of waste.
If you are in one of Wales’ 14 Business Improvement Districts (BIDs), you may find that they already have waste and recycling services which you can access.
Space for your bins
It’s important you consider where and how you will store your waste and recycling.
Ensure that containers and waste storage areas:
- are safe and accessible for people, including users with disabilities, and your waste collector;
- are not in locations that cause an obstruction, a fire hazard or block escape routes;
- provide sufficient capacity to cope with the types and amounts of waste and recyclables you produce and store between collections;
- are not located near food preparation or storage areas for food safety and hygiene reasons
- are close to where the waste and recycling is generated;
- are tidy, clean, and free from clutter or loose waste and
- are secure and do not allow waste or recycling to escape.
It is important to:
- label your recycling bins to avoid contamination. You can use labels from the Business of Recycling Wales website and
- prevent water from becoming contaminated by stored waste.
Following this advice and guide will also help avoid any pest control problems.
For smaller premises with limited space for bins, one option is to have stackable bins which take up minimal or no extra space, see image 1 below.
Image 1: Stacker bins
In larger premises you may want to hire or purchase a baler to wrap up materials such as cardboard packaging. You will need to check that your collector is happy with this and whether they have any limits on the weight of the bales you might produce. Your contractor may provide a baler and training. If you use a baler, you may need to register a “waste exemption” with Natural Resources Wales (NRW).
Food waste and hygiene
The Food Standards Agency also provides guidance which means you need to:
- store food waste in sealable containers which are;
- solid, and strong enough to hold food waste;
- in sound condition – i.e., without breakages or splits that could enable pests to access waste or cause leaks and
- easy to clean and disinfect;
- remove food waste and other rubbish from areas as soon as possible and
- have enough waste storage facilities to store and dispose of food waste and other rubbish to keep them clean.
If your food waste collector allows you to use compostable liners, ensure that your liners are BS EN 13432 compliant. This means that all the food waste is sent for commercial processing to meet the right standards.
Staff training ideas
- Ask for ideas on how a scheme may work, as they may have spotted opportunities or issues which you have not considered;
- Identify a recycling champion to encourage everyone to do the right thing. Management still has ultimate responsibility to ensure all members of staff understand what is expected of them.
- Provide clear instructions on what they should do with different waste streams or recyclables to help you meet your new recycling obligations;
- Provide training to permanent, seasonal and temporary workers. Use orientation training to ensure new starters can recycle from day one, with regular training and reminders for all employees;
- Share information about recycling via regular updates at team meetings and on staff noticeboards so that employees hear about the differences their actions are making and
- Ask for feedback if recycling systems are not working well, ensure employees feel listened to and that issues are identified promptly before they cause bigger problems.
Use our resources on the BUsiness of Recycling when engaging with your employees, clients, visitors, suppliers, and third-party vendors.
Additional resources and information
There is a ban on Single Use Plastics including plastic cutlery, drink stirrers, polystyrene products and drinking straws.
Business Wales provides guidance and support for businesses on sustainability and protecting the environment.
Further guidance is available by the Business of Recycling for retail, hospitality and food services, entertainment and leisure facilities, educational establishments and outdoor events.